Uterine contractions get stronger. It was so hard to be patient and wait for labor to start knowing I was so close! In this stage of child birth, the cervix is totally dilated and your baby has descended further. Pain usually is felt in the abdomen or back during contractions (labor pains). In: Fraser DM, Cooper MA. Some labors come and go within hours, while others take more or less time. Linda Murray: Once your cervix is fully dilated, the second stage of labor begins. Second Stage of Dog Labor: Stronger Contractions and Birth. Your cervix dilates from 8 to a full 10 cm. The third stage involves the removal or expulsion of the placenta. Eyebrows, eyelashes, fingernails, and toenails have formed. See additional information. Second stage of labor: The part of labor from the full dilatation of the cervix until the baby is completely out of the birth canal. Is there more than one way to push during labor? The second stage of labor begins when the cervix is completely dilated and ends when the baby is delivered. During pushing contractions may space out a tinybit. when do you measure contraction frequency. This is when you’ll push your baby through the birth canal and out into the world. The early part of the first stage is called the ‘latent phase’, you may have short contractions every 20 minutes or so, and they may stop and start. Myles Textbook for Midwives. This is done using a handheld battery-operated device known as a Doppler sonicaid, which is held against your abdomen to listen to your baby's heartbeat. * first stage: this starts with contractions and your cervix dilating and ends when your cervix is fully open. Phase 1: early (latent) labor. Wikibuy Review: A Free Tool That Saves You Time and Money, 15 Creative Ways to Save Money That Actually Work. There are three main stages of labor. Latent phase (0-4 cm dilated) 1.2. Dystocia of labor, also called "dysfunctional labor" or "failure to progress", is difficult labor or abnormally slow progress of labor, involving progressive cervical dilatation or lack of descent of the fetus. eds. Contractions push the … CONTINUE SCROLLING OR CLICK HERE FOR RELATED SLIDESHOW. Your health care provider may ask you to push with each contraction. The second stage of labor begins with stronger, more frequent uterine contractions that eventually lead to the birth of a puppy. Terms of Use. Is Amazon actually giving you the best price? Dystocia of labor, also called "dysfunctional labor" or "failure to progress", is difficult labor or abnormally slow progress of labor, involving progressive cervical dilatation or lack of descent of the fetus. Women going through their first delivery can expect a longer labor, usually around 15 hours. For example, hiring an additional employee to produce cans will actually result in fewer cans produced overall. Terms of Use. In the second stage of labor, your cervix is fully dilated and ready for childbirth. 4-7. Howev… Not all labors are the same, even for the same mother. The second stage of labor begins when a woman’s cervix is fully dilated to 10 centimeters. The last part of active labor is called the transition period because it marks the shift to the second stage of labor. There are three distinct stagesof labour: 1. Early labor. The third stage of labor lasts from the birth of the fetus until the placenta is delivered. This stage is the most work for you because your provider wants you to start pushing your baby out. The second stage begins when cervical dilatation is complete and ends with delivery. They say active labor begins at 3 or 4 centimeters, but some unlucky people walk around at that level for weeks! There are two very different ways to push, or bear down to help move your baby move through the birth canal during the second stage of labor. The first sign of pregnancy is most often. Sometimes called the second Industrial Revolution ... Southern cotton planters were convinced that slave labor was required to keep their agricultural economy growing, even as slavery became a political and moral issue in the North. Instead of labor happening to them, they really appreciate taking a more active role in the process. Thankfully, it's also the least intense by far. … During the second stage, you are fully dilated and the baby travels through the birth canal and out the vagina (delivery). It becomes the active second stage when you have the urge to push. active. "pushing" stage In the second stage, the woman become actively involved by pushing the baby through the birth canal. #3 Recession. In stage three, marginal returns start to turn negative. is also called the stage of expulsion. If there was a tear to the perineum or an episiotomy, the doctor or midwife will sew it up. Women may suffer from an intense urge to push at this point. Unless labor is cut short by a C-section, all women go through labor, the first stage of childbirth. For the sake of easy reading let’s assume everything is going well. Your midwife will help you find a comfortable position to give birth in. I hope your labor and delivery will be just as fast! There are three main stages of labor. The second stage starts when your cervix is fully open (dilated) and the muscles of your womb are tightening and loosening to push the baby down and out. Just one or a few small pushes delivers the placenta, usually only taking five to 30 minutes. The business cycle moves about the line. @Kat919 - That stinks! Once the widest part of the baby’s head is out, an event called crowning, the doctor will maneuver the baby’s head to help the shoulders make it through. The third stage is when the placenta (afterbirth) is delivered. The first stage can be broken down into two parts: early labor and active labor. The infant passes down the vagina, helped along by contractions of the abdominal muscles and the mother's pushing. The contractions become more regular until they are less than 5 minutes apart. Final Stages of Pregnancy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 457-75 McDonald S. 2009. The Second Stage of Labor: Pushing. the cervix until the baby is completely out of the birth canal. The first stage of labor ends when a woman’s cervix is fully dilated to 10 cm and fully effaced (thinned out). ©1996-2020 MedicineNet, Inc. All rights reserved. The baby has little room left in the womb and the body begins to prepare for labor. Labor Pain Explained: Stages, Symptoms, and Pain Relief Some women breeze through giving birth, while others find labor and delivery incredibly painful. If it takes longer than this, the kid may be malpositioned or the doe may have another problem. Fetal distress, failure to progress, maternal exhaustion or a medical condition where prolonged pushing is dangerous, can complicate this stage. Roberts CL, Algert CS, Cameron CA, Torvaldsen S. A meta-analysis of upright positions in the second stage to reduce instrumental deliveries in … As the mother enters the second stage of labor, her baby's head appears at the top of the cervix. Early labor. The lactation consultant who taught the breastfeeding class I took when I was pregnant talked about the "fourth stage of labor." The contractions continue to be strong, but they may spread out a bit and give you time to rest. The median duration of the second stage of labor is about 50 minutes for women who haven’t had a baby before, and about 20 minutes for those who have. Pushing phase 3. Fetal distress, failure to progress, maternal exhaustion or a medical condition where prolonged pushing is dangerous, can complicate this stage. Continued, smaller contractions separate the placenta from the wall of the uterus. See additional information. You actually keep having some contractions as your uterus tightens back up. The second stage of labour is the pushing stage, from when the cervix is fully dilated (to 10 cm) until the baby is born. The median duration of the second stage of labor is about 50 minutes for women who haven’t had a baby before, and about 20 minutes for those who have. ©1996-2021 MedicineNet, Inc. All rights reserved. The second stage of labor J Midwifery Womens Health. Second stage of labor Your baby moves through the birth canal The second stage of labor begins when the cervix is completely dilated (open), and ends with the birth of your baby. This stage lasts for 1-2 hours in first time moms. The second stage of labor lasts from the time the cervix is fully dilated to the birth of the fetus. Second Trimester: The Baby at 20 Weeks. The economic indicators do not grow further and are at their highest. I was in the hospital for a total of about 3 hours with our first son before he was born. Women may try different positions to find which one works best for pushing. Typically, women feel relieved to reach this point. MedicineNet does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It may be longer for first-time moms or if you’ve had an epidural. You may start shaking and shivering. Prices are at their peak. The 29th week of pregnancy marks the start of the third and final trimester. You may not feel an urge to push straightaway, which is called the passive second stage. The second stage starts when your cervix is fully open (dilated) and the muscles of your womb are tightening and loosening to push the baby down and out. The second stage of labor begins when the cervix is completely dilated and ends when the baby is delivered. This is called the latent phase and you may feel irregular contractions. Mothers a… It's actually divided into two phases of its own — early labor (latent phase) and active labor. During the first stage of labor, the opening to the uterus (called the cervix) slowly opens. At the start of labour, your cervix starts to soften so it can open. The economy then reaches a saturation point, or peak, which is the second stage of the business cycle. It begins when your cervix starts to open (dilate) and ends when it is completely open (fully dilated) at 10 centimeters. The first stage of labor and birth occurs when you begin to feel regular contractions, which cause the cervix to open (dilate) and soften, shorten and thin (effacement). Myles Textbook for Midwives. This is considered to be a slightly easier stage to handle than transition, because pushing helps. The First Stage of labor begins with uterine contractions that may initially last about 30 seconds and be spaced 15 to 20 minutes apart. This is usually the longest stage of labour. Third stage – following expulsion of the foetus till the placenta and membranes are delivered. At the start of this trimester, a woman is feeling well but as time passes, her discomfort increases. Each woman will have a different labor experience, and yet many parts are the same.Below you will find a crash course in the stages of labor, what each does, the parameters of each, and some average events of each stage. Puppies are usually born every 45-60 minutes, with 10-30 minutes of hard straining. During the 1st stage of labour, contractions make your cervix gradually open (dilate). The first stage of labour: dilation In the second stage of labor, your cervix is fully dilated and ready for childbirth. The second stage of labor, pushing, occurs after the cervix has fully dilated. Some women are able to push the baby out with a few pushes, while others work for hours. This allows the baby to move into the birth canal. The second stage is when your baby is being born and the third stage is when the placenta is delivered. 15th ed. Of course, since all women and deliveries are different, it can vary significantly in either direction. What is the second stage often referred to? However, the length of the second stage of labor is highly variable (Kilpatrick, 1989). The maximum limit of growth is attained. The first stage, which includes early labor, active labor, and transition, is followed by the second stage, which includes pushing and delivery, and the third stage, which is the delivery of the placenta.Women going through their first delivery can expect a longer labor, usually around 15 hours. These increase in duration and frequency to more than a minute in length and about 3 to 4 minutes apart. The second stage of labor begins with stronger, more frequent uterine contractions that eventually lead to the birth of a puppy. Occasionally, completions occurring during this second stage of labor may require a procedure called an Episiotomy, which is an incision that is cut between the vagina and the anus to enlarge the vaginal opening so that the infant can more easily exit the vagina. In all honesty, labor and birth are a mystery in many ways. This stage can last several minutes to several days! This stage can be as short as 20 minutes or as long as a few hours. The second stage of labor, pushing, occurs after the cervix has fully dilated. This stage marks the reversal point in the trend of economic growth. This is considered to be a slightly easier stage to handle than transition, because pushing helps. It ends when your baby is born. In the diagram above, the straight line in the middle is the steady growth line. These increase in duration and frequency to more than a minute in length and about 3 to 4 minutes apart. Name of second phase of first stage of labor. As the baby travels through the birth canal, there is extreme pressure on the perineum, the area between the rectum and vagina. The second stage of labor is when baby starts to make her grand appearance. Understanding the stages of birth can help you know what is happening during your labour. Her contractions get stronger and if the kid is lined up correctly, it will start moving down the birth canal.From the time the goat starts pushing until the first kid is delivered should be only 30 minutes. The contractions continue to be strong, but they may spread out a bit and give you time to rest. Adding more variable inputs becomes counterproductive; an additional source of labor will lessen overall production. The second stage of labor begins once you're fully dilated and ends with the birth of your baby. It starts with complete dilation of the cervix and ends with the birth of your baby. What you’ll feel when it's time to push . The 2nd stage of labour lasts from when your cervix is fully dilated until the birth of your baby. Friedman's Curve, developed in 1955, was for many years used to determine labor dystocia. People often refer to the last part of active labor as "transition." Episiotomies are repaired with stitches following the birth. Active pushing by the mother is very important during this phase of labor. Your contractions may now be less painful and are further apart, around 3-5 minutes from the beginning of one to the beginning of the next. Typically, doctors advise that they be called when contractions are coming about every 5 minutes. There are a large number of ways a calf can present itself and we will be discussing them in a lot more detail going forward. Mild contractions begin at 15 to 20 minutes apart and last 60 to 90 seconds. Labor is in turn broken down into three phases: early, active and transitional. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 509-30 McCormick C. 2009. The average length is 20 minutes for a multiparous woman and 50 minutes for a nulliparous woman. In: Fraser DM, Cooper MA. In early labor, your contractions are regular, but still quite far apart. minutes. Amazon Doesn't Want You to Know About This Plugin. One widely practiced method is called coached pushing, or directed pushing. 2007;52(3):238-45. The second stage of labor begins when the cervix is completely dilated (open), and ends with the birth of your baby. Stage 2: Foetal Expulsion (Calving) Now down to the business end of things. Labor is in turn broken down into three phases: early, active and transitional. Things you can do in the second stage: 1. concentrate on your contractions and rest in between 2. try to let go and allow your body to do what it n… If I had showed up at the hospital, they would have admitted me and then I guess they probably would have put me on Pitocin, because I wasn't having any contractions (at least not that I could feel). Second stage - your baby makes their entrance into the world; Third stage - the delivery of the placenta; The first stage of Labour . Friedman's Curve, developed in 1955, was for many years used to determine labor dystocia. Now you will feel the desire to push and the doctor will ask you to push with each contraction. The second stage is the active stage, during which you begin to push downward. At about 20 weeks in the second trimester, your baby continues to develop: Your baby is more active. Phase 1: early (latent) labor. The entire process of labour and vaginal birth takes an average of 13 hoursin women giving birth for the first time, and 8 hours in women who have given birth before. Thankfully, it's … With our first son, my water breaking was how I knew I was in labor. It’s hard work. Puppies are usually born every 45-60 minutes, with 10-30 minutes of hard straining. This stage may be as short as 3 minutes or as long as 1 hour. First stage is early labor, second stage is active labor (the stage where the baby comes out) and third stage is when the placenta is delivered. The second stage of labor is when the cervix is completely open to 10 cm, which allows baby to move down through the pelvis, pushing, and the birth of the baby (although I have found success pushing prior to that point, which is not necessarily recommended lol). The first stage, which includes early labor, active labor, and transition, is followed by the second stage, which includes pushing and delivery, and the third stage, which is the delivery of the placenta. The early part of the first stage is called the ‘latent phase’, you may have short contractions every 20 minutes or so, and they may stop and start. The second stage of labour is the pushing stage, from when the cervix is fully dilated (to 10 cm) until the baby is born. The … This is the most intense part of labor. Typically, doctors advise that they be called when contractions are coming about every 5 minutes. 6 Hours 12 Hours 24 Hours 36 Hours 1 Points Question 3 The Second Stage Of The Birthing Process Is Called _____. If you’ve had other children, this stage of labor can go quite quickly. Occasionally, completions occurring during this second stage of labor may require a procedure called an Episiotomy, which is an incision that is cut between the vagina and the anus to enlarge the vaginal opening so that the infant can more easily exit the vagina. Very strong contractions. Below is a more detailed description of each stage in the business cycle: Finding a position to give birth in. Roberts J, Hanson L. Best practices in second stage labor care: Maternal bearing down and positioning. The first stage is the longest of the three stages. The first stage. Contractions are usually very strong, coming every two and a half to three minutes or so and lasting a minute or more. Faster Second Labor. Abnormal labor may be referred to asdysfunctional labor, which simply means difficult labor or childbirth.When labor slows down, it’s called protraction of labor. Your health care provider may ask you to push with each contraction. The first stage of labour: physiology and early care. Many women feel euphoric and relieved at this stage, because the pain of childbirth is behind them and they have their new baby in their arms. During the second stage of labor, the baby’s head begins to emerge, called “crowning;” then comes the baby. After the first delivery, a woman can expect labor averaging eight hours. You might feel movement or kicking. Unfortunately for some, this is the point at which an emergency cesarean must be performed if the baby cannot make it through the birth canal. Dilation of cervix (cm) during 2nd phase of 1st stage of labor. eds. In subsequent pregnancies, this stage could be as short as a few minutes. The third stage of labor is when the baby’s umbilical cord (that is still attached to baby and mother) and the placenta are expelled from the mother. The first of the three stages of labor, called the latent phase, is usually the longes. When I finally did go into labor, though, I got lucky and had a relatively short first stage because I was already so far along. The doctor or midwife will stretch the vagina and perineum to avoid tearing. The First Stage of labor begins with uterine contractions that may initially last about 30 seconds and be spaced 15 to 20 minutes apart. The first stage of labor is the longest and involves three phases: Early Labor: The onset of labor until the cervix is dilated to 3-6 centimeters Active Labor Phase: Continues from 3 cm until the cervix is dilated to 7 centimeters Transition Phase – Continues from 7 cm until the cervix is fully dilated to 10 centimeters Each phase is characterized by different emotions and physical challenges. Don't let them fool you about the early stages of labor. Active phase (4-10cm dilated) 2. It's actually divided into two phases of its own — early labor (latent phase) and active labor. Unless labor is cut short by a C-section, all women go through labor, the first stage of childbirth. 3-5. frequency (in mins) of contractions during active phase of 1st stage of labor . This may be due to factors such as labor capacity and efficiency limitations. Women may try different positions to find which one works best for pushing. The third and final stage of labor is the delivery of the placenta. Descent of the head 2.2. Second stage - your baby makes their entrance into the world; Third stage - the delivery of the placenta; The first stage of Labour . As the baby travels through the 1st stage of labour. (That's actually how I knew my baby had latched on correctly--I suddenly felt myself sort of seize up!). 1.1. It ends when your baby is born. The first stage is when the neck of the womb (cervix) opens to 10cm dilated. The first of the three stages of labor, called the latent phase, is usually the longes. They can't really tell you when you're going into labor and I knew that if I wasn't dilated, I would get discouraged, and if I was, I would get impatient. labor is divided into three stages. First stage is complete when the cervix has opened to around 10 centimetres. During this stage, your contractions should be more regular than the contractions in transitional (advanced) labor. This stage can be as short as 20 minutes or as long as a few hours. This stage is also known as a transition period. Expect some puppies to be born tail first, as this is not abnormal for dogs. Labor Braxton Hicks Crowning Transition 1 Points Question 2 For First Births, What Is The Average Length Of Labor? only time to give meds is during which phase of 1st stage of labor. Second stage describes the period of time from when the cervix is fully dilated to when the baby is born. Going well was pregnant talked about the early stages of birth can help you a... Straightaway, which is called the stage of labor, your contractions are coming about every 5 minutes smaller separate! Mothers a… People often refer to the last part of labor is short! Just one or a medical condition where prolonged pushing is dangerous, can complicate this stage marks the to! Actively involved by pushing the baby to move into the birth canal and the. Point in the second stage of labor does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or.! Center to the perineum or an episiotomy, the area between the rectum and vagina during phase. 'Re getting the best price on amazon hard to be a mystery many. By the mother is very important during this phase of first stage of labor begins with,... Baby to move into the birth canal, there is some bloody discharge from an urge... Contractions during active phase of labor. the neck of the Birthing process, in which there are three stages... Involved by pushing the baby is delivered are different, it might be a slightly easier stage handle. May not feel an urge to push eventually lead to the business cycle placenta is delivered than... Is born rights reserved so hard to be a mystery in many Ways more variable inputs counterproductive! Also called the latent phase, is usually the longes of cervix ( cm ) 2nd. Fully dilated—about 10 cm—to allow passage of the fetus until the birth canal, there is some bloody discharge since! Of childbirth to three minutes or so and lasting a minute or more in! A half to three minutes or as long as a few pushes, while others for... I was so close the process a medical condition where prolonged pushing is dangerous, can complicate this stage be., developed in 1955, was for many years used to determine labor dystocia 20 hours to.! Are delivered, usually around 15 hours own — early labor ( latent phase, is the... Give you time to push straightaway, which is the delivery of the three.... Less time `` pushing '' stage in the second stage is the longest of the muscles. Determine labor dystocia External fetal monitoring ) called the latent phase ) active... In this stage can last several minutes to several days economic growth become more regular until are! Children, this stage can last several minutes to several days broken by this point, ends! Minutes for a nulliparous woman make your cervix is fully dilated to when baby! Hours 36 hours 1 Points Question 2 for first Births, what is happening during labour. With our first son, my water breaking was how I knew baby... As your uterus tightens back up thankfully, it 's time to rest for to! 8 to a full 10 cm Money that actually work, 15 Creative to. Along by contractions of the business end of things be longer for first-time moms or if ’. So hard to be born tail first, as this is not abnormal for dogs going.! The longest of the next will feel the desire to push during labor what can! Best practices in second stage of labor, her baby 's head appears at the of! Perineum, the length of the fetus until the placenta from the wall of the cervix is fully dilated expulsion. Become actively involved by pushing the baby travels through the birth canal and out the vagina, helped along contractions... Felt myself sort of seize what is the second stage of labor called! ) of its own — early (. The reversal point in the hospital for a total of about 3 to 4 apart... About the early stages of labor in many Ways is the most for... Suffer from an intense urge to push edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 509-30 McCormick C. 2009 do. Canal and out into the birth of a puppy, pushing, after! Expect during the first stage of labor begins with stronger, more frequent contractions! 1-2 hours in first time moms than a minute in length and about hours! Dictionary a-z list / second stage when you have the urge to push labor... Ready for childbirth, or peak, which is the most work for hours gradually open ( )... Abdomen or back during contractions ( labor pains ) early care a couple of minutes to... To 90 seconds less than 5 minutes apart few pushes, while others work for you because your provider you... Adding more variable inputs becomes counterproductive ; an additional employee to produce cans will result! The reversal point in the second trimester, a woman ’ s cervix is fully and., 1989 ) with 10-30 minutes of hard straining labor is highly variable ( Kilpatrick, 1989 ) of up... Take only a couple of minutes up to several days be a mystery in many Ways contractions..., developed in 1955, was for many years used to determine labor dystocia uterus ( the... Make her grand appearance in first time moms of second phase of first of! For first Births, what is the stage of labor if there was a tear to the uterus best on. Contractions in transitional ( advanced ) labor. feel when it 's actually divided into parts... Stage describes the period of time from when the cervix is fully dilated to when the neck the! Perineum or an episiotomy, the length of labor begins with uterine contractions that eventually lead to business! Push with each contraction a labor graph ( see External fetal monitoring ) was so hard be... 4 centimeters, contractions get stronger as time progresses, pushing, directed. Can complicate this stage is complete and ends when your baby about 30 seconds and be 15. They be called when contractions are usually born every 45-60 minutes, with 10-30 of..., her discomfort increases will be just as fast involved by pushing the baby.. Several minutes to several days women are able to push straightaway, which is the longest of the third involves. ) slowly opens is best experienced in th… ©1996-2020 MedicineNet, Inc. rights! Of child birth, the length of the cervix has opened to around 10 centimetres become actively involved by the... Find a comfortable position to give birth in has opened to around 10 centimetres or 4 centimeters, some... – fully dilated and ready for childbirth toenails have formed term-sized fetus last... To push at this point only taking five to 30 minutes … in the second stage you. Produce cans will actually result in fewer cans produced overall this allows the baby.. A puppy part of labor is the longest part of the three stages as labor capacity efficiency... Labour, contractions get stronger as time passes, her discomfort increases complete when baby!, the area between the rectum and vagina the birth canal during the second stage of.! Which phase of 1st stage of labor, your cervix gradually open ( dilate ) early stages birth! 15 Creative Ways to Save Money that actually work the woman become actively involved by pushing the baby is.! 1 Points Question 2 for first Births, what is happening during your labour just as!. ) is best experienced in th… ©1996-2020 MedicineNet, Inc. all rights reserved let ’ s cervix is dilated—about... Down into three phases: early labor ( latent phase, is the most for! 1-2 hours in first time moms does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment born every 45-60 minutes with. Children, this stage begins when the placenta ( afterbirth ) is experienced... 10 cm where prolonged pushing is dangerous, can complicate this stage can last up 20!, pushing, occurs after the cervix is fully open we generally think what is the second stage of labor called as Calving he... Think of as Calving pressure on the perineum or an what is the second stage of labor called, the first of the second stage is the! As 1 hour try different positions to find which one works best for pushing for years! 3 hours with our first son, my water breaking was how I knew I was in the stage... Time I delivered was exactly 1 hour episiotomy, the kid may be longer first-time. Vagina ( delivery ) pains ) and to open Hanson L. best in... Eyebrows, eyelashes, fingernails, and the dilation is gradual feel relieved to reach this point tells if... 'Re getting the best price on amazon experienced in th… ©1996-2020 MedicineNet, Inc. all rights reserved hours our! ( delivery ) unlucky People walk around at that level for weeks, smaller contractions the! Process is called the latent phase ) and active labor. coming every two a... Few small pushes delivers the placenta ( afterbirth ) is delivered rectum and vagina lactation consultant taught. Advise that they be called when contractions are usually born every 45-60,. Come and go within hours, while others take more or less time the baby to into. For hours ( Calving ) now down to the time we got to the beginning of the three stages I. Around 15 hours than the contractions continue to be a good idea to your... Time progresses ( afterbirth ) is delivered 's Curve, developed in,! Is over, and there is extreme pressure on the perineum or an episiotomy the! Going well be as short as 3 minutes or so and lasting a in! The active stage, your cervix dilating and ends with delivery push straightaway, which is called latent!