It is nearly always done with a forehand stroke. It is not a fault if the ball accidentally hits one's hand or fingers and then subsequently hits the racket. To impart a spin on the ball which is parallel to its trajectory, the racket must be swung more or less perpendicular to the trajectory of the ball, greatly limiting the forward momentum that the racket transfers to the ball. In the last possible game of a match, for example the seventh game in a best of seven matches, players change ends when the first player scores five points, regardless of whose turn it is to serve. The object is speed instead of spin, so the player hits through the ball, which is directed slightly downward over the net in a low arc. Forehand loopLoop shots are executed away from the table and when the ball is on its way down. ", "Lee Bee Wah quits because of foreign talent issues", "Table tennis: STTA seeks Singapore passport for Zeng", "Eligibility regulations in place effective from 3rdMay 2018–practical implementation", "Liu Guoliang needs to prove he is good as coach", "Jan-Ove Waldner's results of tournaments", Pan-American Para Table Tennis Championships, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Table_tennis&oldid=995766985, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The method has been validated and tested threefold: 1. '[53], The stance in table tennis is also known as the 'ready position'. As far as the table tennis players are concerned, the highschoolers' attitudes toward sports are different from those of colleges students which, in turn, are different from those of women. Fig.13 shows the relationship between Ec/Ep and Ep. As this system is not standard across manufacturers, the only way a ball may be used in official competition is upon ITTF approval[24] (the ITTF approval can be seen printed on the ball). The ITTF uses the term "racket",[30] though "bat" is common in Britain, and "paddle" in the U.S. and Canada. A good chop will float nearly horizontally back to the table, in some cases having so much backspin that the ball actually rises. The aim of the research was to analyze anaerobic characteristics of Slovenian elite table tennis male and female players. ITTF currently includes 220 member associations. Spinning the ball alters its trajectory and limits an opponent's options, giving the hitter a great advantage. Table tennis strokes generally break down into offensive and defensive categories. The name table tennis was adopted in 1921–22 when the old Ping-Pong Association formed in 1902 was revived. A game shall be won by the player first scoring 11 points unless both players score 10 points, when the game shall be won by the first player subsequently gaining a lead of 2 points. Thereafter if the service and 13 following strokes of the server are returned by the receiver, the server loses the point. [71], The rate of naturalization accelerated after the ITTF's 2009 decision (one year after China won every possible Olympic medal in the sport) to reduce the number of entries per association in both the Olympics and the World Table Tennis Championships. Blocks almost always produce the same spin as was received, many times topspin. Some defensive players can also impart no-spin or sidespin variations of the chop. [64] The most important international competitions are the World Table Tennis Championships, the Table Tennis World Cup, the Olympics and the ITTF World Tour. The correct or incorrect guess gives the "winner" the option to choose to serve, receive, or to choose which side of the table to use. 1. In contrast, another style, sometimes referred to as the Japanese/Korean penhold grip, involves splaying those three fingers out across the back of the racket, usually with all three fingers touching the back of the racket, rather than stacked upon one another. In addition to games between individual players, pairs may also play table tennis. Hardbat table tennis uses rackets with short outward "pips" and no sponge, resulting in decreased speeds and reduced spin. A flip is not a single stroke and can resemble either a loop drive or a loop in its characteristics. By flipping the racket in play, different types of returns are possible. Many players today combine inverted and long-pipped rubber. The 40 mm ball was introduced after the end of the 2000 Summer Olympics; previously a 38 mm ball was standard. Except for the initial serve, the rules are generally as follows: players must allow a ball played toward them to bounce one time on their side of the table, and must return it so that it bounces on the opposite side at least once. When the player on the receiving side is not ready and the service is delivered. After the apex of the curve, the ball dips downwards as it approaches the opposing side, before bouncing. If the service is "good", then the receiver must make a "good" return by hitting the ball back before it bounces a second time on receiver's side of the table so that the ball passes the net and touches the opponent's court, either directly or after touching the net assembly. The opponent moves the playing surface or touches the net assembly. Goode who, in 1901, invented the modern version of the racket by fixing a sheet of pimpled, or stippled, rubber to the wooden blade. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. If the umpire is doubtful of the legality of a service they may first interrupt play and give a warning to the server. If the third offence happens, 2 points will be given to the player. [1][2] It has been suggested that makeshift versions of the game were developed by British military officers in India around the 1860s or 1870s, who brought it back with them. A match shall consist of the best of any odd number of games. Table tennis is governed by the worldwide organization International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF), founded in 1926. Table Tennis Ontario; Register as a member & sign up for UTTTC emails! In most countries it is very highly organized as a competitive sport, especially in Europe and Asia, particularly in China and Japan. For example, when the last order of play before a pair score 5 points in the final game is A→X→B→Y, the order after change shall be A→Y→B→X if A still has the second serve. [20] This created some controversies. The first group consisted of four best Slovenian female players while the Tennis, original name lawn tennis, game in which two opposing players (singles) or pairs of players (doubles) use tautly strung rackets to hit a ball of specified size, weight, and bounce over a net on a rectangular court. Note that the hand that is holding the racket counts as part of the racket and that making a good return off one's hand or fingers is allowed. [33], According to ITTF rule 2.13.1, the first service is decided by lot,[34] normally a coin toss. In table tennis topspin is regarded as an offensive technique due to increased ball speed, lower bio-mechanical efficiency and the pressure that it puts on the opponent by reducing reaction time. Physiological responses and characteristics of table tennis matches determined in official tournaments. (It is possible to play defensive topspin-lobs from far behind the table, but only highly skilled players use this stroke with any tactical efficiency.) When a player tries to attack a ball that has not bounced beyond the edge of the table, the player does not have the room to wind up in a backswing. Subjective ranking of balls by professional players, 2. high speed video recordings of spinning balls, motion reconstruction, and ranking according to the oscillation amplitudes observed and 3. investigation of the sensitivity of the method … An official hall of fame exists at the ITTF Museum. The cultural characteristics of table tennis were also examined and the following conclusions were reached. [25], The table is 2.74 m (9.0 ft) long, 1.525 m (5.0 ft) wide, and 76 cm (2.5 ft) high with any continuous material so long as the table yields a uniform bounce of about 23 cm (9.1 in) when a standard ball is dropped onto it from a height of 30 cm (11.8 in), or about 77%. Aside from the initial direction change when bouncing, unless it goes out of reach, the opponent can counter with either topspin or backspin. The choice of ball color is made according to the table color and its surroundings. Examining Ec/Ep is also a easier way to understand the tendency of elasticity of blades. It is achieved by placing the thumb and index finger on either side of the bottom of the racquet head and holding the handle with the rest of the fingers. [6] A row of books stood up along the center of the table as a net, two more books served as rackets and were used to continuously hit a golf-ball. The racket is parallel to the direction of the stroke ("closed") and the racket thus grazes the ball, resulting in a large amount of topspin. In those early days, the scoring system was the same as in lawn tennis. The object of a defensive chop is to match the topspin of the opponent's shot with backspin. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Because the speed is the main aim of this shot, the spin on the ball is often minimal, although it can be applied as well. Players employ this type of spin almost exclusively when serving, but at the professional level, it is also used from time to time in the lob. A basic table tennis paddle is used by table tennis players. [24] The rules say that the ball shall bounce up 24–26 cm (9.4–10.2 in) when dropped from a height of 30.5 cm (12.0 in) onto a standard steel block thereby having a coefficient of restitution of 0.89 to 0.92. Table tennis equipment, consisting of racket, ball, net, and table, come in a wide variety from a multitude of manufacturers. That means the first receiver of the game is the player who served to the first server of the game in the preceding game. The ball passes over the player's court or beyond their end line without touching their court, after being struck by the opponent. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics and efficiency of service in the best young table tennis players, as well as the existence of differences in service between young players of different ages. [31] The player has the right to inspect their opponent's racket before a match to see the type of rubber used and what colour it is. The small bats will be used when you play ping-pong. Concrete tables with a steel net or a solid concrete partition are sometimes available in outside public spaces, such as parks.[28]. [23]. A push can be difficult to attack because the backspin on the ball causes it to drop toward the table upon striking the opponent's racket. However, the Chinese developed a technique in the 1990s in which a penholder uses both sides of the racket to hit the ball, where the player produces a backhand stroke (most often topspin) known as a reverse penhold backhand by turning the traditional side of the racket to face one's self, and striking the ball with the opposite side of the racket. 1. This stroke differs from speed drives in other racket sports like tennis because the racket is primarily perpendicular to the direction of the stroke and most of the energy applied to the ball results in speed rather than spin, creating a shot that does not arc much, but is fast enough that it can be difficult to return. In table tennis, it is not similar to strokes from other racket sports like tennis. The original Pong consisted of two paddles that players used to volley a small ball back and…. [49] Though it is sometimes referred to as the "tennis" or "Western" grip, it bears no relation to the Western tennis grip, which was popularized on the West Coast of the United States in which the racket is rotated 90°, and played with the wrist turned so that on impact the knuckles face the target. Although nearly every stroke or serve creates some kind of spin, understanding the individual types of spin allows players to defend against and use different spins effectively.[58]. A total of 8 subjects were divided in two groups. Singles and doubles are both played in international competition, including the Olympic Games since 1988 and the Commonwealth Games since 2002. This makes sidespin a useful weapon in service, because it is less easily recognized when bouncing, and the ball "loses" less spin on the bounce. On the bounce, the topspin will accelerate the ball, much in the same way that a wheel which is already spinning would accelerate upon making contact with the ground. World table tennis champion, men's singles, 1930, 1932–35; men's doubles, 1929–35; mixed doubles, 1932, 1935. To help a player distinguish between the rubber used by his opposing player, international rules specify that one side must be red while the other side must be black. …application of note was in table-tennis balls. The axis of rotation is still roughly perpendicular to the trajectory of the ball. Since only one side of the racquet is used to hit the ball, two contrasting rubber types can be applied to the blade, offering the advantage of "twiddling" the racket to fool the opponent. Let’s see some amazing facts and trivia about it! Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The order of play shall be A→X→B→Y. From 1988 until 2004, these were men's singles, women's singles, men's doubles and women's doubles. [15], In the 1950s, paddles that used a rubber sheet combined with an underlying sponge layer changed the game dramatically,[1] introducing greater spin and speed. [10], Although both a "Table Tennis Association" and a "Ping Pong Association" existed by 1910,[10] a new Table Tennis Association was founded in 1921, and in 1926 renamed the English Table Tennis Association. Play is interrupted by the umpire or assistant umpire. The Seemiller grip's popularity reached its apex in 1985 when four (Danny Seemiller, Ricky Seemiller, Eric Boggan and Brian Masters) of the United States' five participants in the World Championships used it. When the opponent attempts to return the ball, the topspin causes the ball to jump upwards and the opponent is forced to compensate for the topspin by adjusting the angle of his or her racket. But, the characteristics of those two materials are similar to each other.) Though table tennis players grip their rackets in various ways, their grips can be classified into two major families of styles, penhold and shakehand. The player swings upward while "brushing" or grazing the upper half of the ball with a closed racket face (the top of the blade tipped toward the net). Use the stars to give a rating from 1 to 5 stars, using this rating scale. Facts about Table Tennis present the information about ping-pong sporting game. This was not always so. The net is 6 feet (1.8 metres) long, and its upper edge along the whole length is 6 inches (15.25 cm) above the playing surface. Current rules state that, unless damaged in play, the racket cannot be exchanged for another racket at any time during a match. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). What identifies the stroke is that the backswing is compressed into a short wrist flick. Table tennis is governed by the worldwide organization International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF), founded in 1926. In table tennis, "Western" refers to Western nations, for this is the grip that players native to Europe and the Americas have almost exclusively employed. In casual games, many players do not toss the ball upward; however, this is technically illegal and can give the serving player an unfair advantage. The table’s surface is the most important aspect to consider because it has the greatest affect on the ball, and subsequently the game. Even if you think a factor is not important, please still give it a one-star rating. The player, standing in a square-on position, swings downward while "brushing" or grazing the lower half of the ball with an open racket face (the top of the blade tipped away from the net). For the opponent to have time to realize a serve is taking place, the ball must be tossed a minimum of 16 centimetres (6.3 in) in the air. [37] The server strikes the ball with the racket on the ball's descent so that it touches first his court and then touches directly the receiver's court without touching the net assembly. The hook can even be used in some extreme cases to circumvent the net when away from the table. By that time, players had begun increasing the thickness of the fast sponge layer on their paddles, which made the game excessively fast and difficult to watch on television. World Championship of Ping Pong uses old-fashioned wooden paddles covered with sandpaper. A good loop drive will arc quite a bit, and once striking the opponent's side of the table will jump forward, much like a kick serve in tennis. The topspin stroke has a smaller influence on the first part of the ball-curve. There are also some important international club teams competitions such as the European Champions League and its former competitor,[vague] the European Club Cup, where the top club teams from European countries compete. [22] Unlike a conventional "racket", it does not include strings strung across an open frame. The table is rectangular, 9 feet by 5 feet (2.7 metres by 1.5 metres), its upper surface a level plane 30 inches (76 cm) above the floor. The penhold grip is so-named because one grips the racket similarly to the way one holds a writing instrument. In doubles, all the rules of single play are applied except for the following. The server cannot use his/her body or clothing to obstruct sight of the ball; the opponent and the umpire must have a clear view of the ball at all times. ServeThe ball and racket must be behind and above the table during the serve. Interest to the spectator lies in observing the ability of one player to defeat another by well-thought-out strategy. Due to the power involved in offensive strokes, often an opponent simply cannot recover quickly enough to return the blocked shot, especially if the block is aimed at an unexpected side of the table. The table tennis paddle is usually made from laminated wood covered with rubber on one or two sides depending on the player's grip. Like the backspin stroke, however, the axis of spin remains roughly perpendicular to the trajectory of the ball thus allowing for the Magnus effect to dictate the subsequent curvature. Then World No 1 table tennis professional Vladimir Samsonov threatened to pull out of the World Cup, which was scheduled to debut the new regulation ball on October 12, 2000. The receiving pair, however, can only choose in the first game of the match. This stroke is sometimes referred to as a "hook". [38] Thereafter, the server and receiver must alternately make a return until the rally is over. Table tennis was growing in popularity by 1901 to the extent that tournaments were being organized, books being written on the subject,[7] and an unofficial world championship was held in 1902. Lob is used less frequently by professional players. [7] This was intended to make games more fast-paced and exciting. A match consists of the best of any odd numbers of games, each game being won by the player who first reaches 11 points or who, after 10 points each, wins two clear points ahead. The game is popular all over the world. In the mid-1950s Asia emerged as a breeding ground of champions, and from that time the men’s team event has been won by either Japan or China, as has the women’s event, though to a lesser extent; North Korea also became an international force. Table tennis equipment is relatively simple and inexpensive. [57] Thus, though backed off the table by tens of feet and running to reach the ball, a good defensive player can still win the point using good lobs. [48] Chinese penholders favour a round racket head, for a more over-the-table style of play. Despite high speed play and rapid exchanges, a player can see clearly what side of the racket was used to hit the ball. The blade of a racket, or bat, is usually made of wood, is flat and rigid, and may be covered with a thin layer of ordinary stippled, or pimpled, rubber, which may be laid over a thin layer of sponge rubber and may have the pimples reversed. [7][20] This increased the ball's air resistance and effectively slowed down the game. Such a chop can be extremely difficult to return due to its enormous amount of backspin. Last Name * = required field powered by MailChimp! A point is scored when the server fails to make a good service, when either player fails to make a good return, or when either player commits a specified infraction (e.g., touches the playing surface with a free hand while the ball is in play). The following table presents an exhaustive list of all players to have completed a grand slam. 3. Our hypotheses are that table tennis has a short DR and rest time, low [LAC] and low result of HR in a match, Some famous choppers include Joo Sae-hyuk and Wu Yang. [35] It is also common for one player (or the umpire/scorer) to hide the ball in one or the other hand, usually hidden under the table, allowing the other player to guess which hand the ball is in. [45] In 2005, the ITTF announced that doubles table tennis only was featured as a part of team events in the 2008 Olympics. Due to the different environment, the style and playing method of table tennis have different characteristics in different countries. Play is now restricted. Balls are now made of a polymer instead of celluloid as of 2015, colored white or orange, with a matte finish. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net. For example, if the order of play is A→X→B→Y at beginning of the first game, the order begins with X→A→Y→B or Y→B→X→A in the second game depending on either X or Y being chosen as the first server of the game. Increasing the speed of the game, slowing it down, varying the direction of or imparting different spin or pace to the ball, and employing gentle drop shots over the net when the opponent is out of position are some of the tactics that may be used to support the strategy planned. The racket is held closed and near to the ball, which is hit with a short movement "off the bounce" (immediately after hitting the table) so that the ball travels faster to the other side. The original association had broken up about 1905, though apparently the game continued to be played in parts of England outside London and by the 1920s was being played in many countries. [26][27] The table or playing surface is uniformly dark coloured and matte, divided into two halves by a net at 15.25 cm (6.0 in) in height. Smash is used more often with penhold grip. A method for quantifying unbalance characteristics of table tennis balls has been developed. This imparts topspin to the ball. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Throughout your shopping for an indoor table, you will notice a surface thickness ranging from around 5/8 inch to 1 … Worldwide, the women’s game is comparable in organization to the men’s, and women take part in world championships and all other organized events. The net will be used to divide a hard table used to play the game. From the upturned palm of the server's motionless free hand, the ball is tossed upward and struck as it falls so that it first hits the server's half of the table, travels over (or around) the net, and then hits the opponent's half of the table. However, these successes have been very controversial in Singapore. The service changes after each point. The ball touches the net in service (service), provided the service is otherwise correct or the ball is obstructed by the player on the receiving side. Finger spin was universally banned in 1937. This imparts backspin to the ball. ", "International Table Tennis Federation Archives", "Отечественная История настольного тенниса", "Evolution of the Laws of Table Tennis and the Regulations for International Competitions", "Board of Directors Passes Use of 40mm Ball", "BBC News | TENNIS | Table tennis gets bigger ball", "Manika's sleight of backhand gives India historic gold", "ITTF Technical Leaflet T4: Racket Coverings", "ITTF Handbook for Match Officials 13th edition", "A History Lesson: How Topspin Revolutionized Table Tennis", "World Championships Finalists - Men's Singles", "World Championships Finalists - Women's Singles", "At Least 44 Table Tennis Players in Rio Are Chinese-Born. [44] The player serving first in a game receives first in the next game of the match. The racket is held at the ready with a bent arm. Twelve professional male table tennis athletes (age: 22.5 ± 1.4 years, body mass: 70.3 ± 3.9 kg, body height: 1.76 ± 0.05 m, training experience: 10.4 ± 1.4 years) volunteered The average size of the blade is about 17 centimetres (6.7 in) long and 15 centimetres (5.9 in) wide, although the official restrictions only focus on the flatness and rigidity of the blade itself, these dimensions are optimal for most play styles. Drive is often the bread-and-butter stroke of a player's arsenal, used mostly for keeping the ball in play, … 1 year after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 15 when registered and has never represented another association, 3 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 15 when registered and has already represented another association, 5 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 18 but at least 15 years of age when registered, 7 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 21 but at least 18 years of age when registered, 9 years after the date of registration, if the player is at least 21 years old when registered, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 19:59. As we may already know, table tennis is a fast-paced sport which requires fastness and speed. The upper torso is positioned slightly forward and the player is looking forwards. Table tennis was introduced as an Olympic sport at the Olympics in 1988. "Ping-pong" redirects here. A point is scored when a player fails to return the ball within the rules. Unlike any of the techniques mentioned above, corkspin (or "drill-spin") has the axis of spin relatively parallel to the ball's trajectory, so that the Magnus effect has little or no effect on the trajectory of a cork-spun ball: upon bouncing, the ball will dart right or left (according to the direction of the spin), severely complicating the return. After making a service or a return, the ball touches anything other than the net assembly before being struck by the opponent. In defensive players can vary greatly from player to defeat another by well-thought-out strategy were. Return due to its enormous amount of backspin balls used for keeping the point used Wingate (. Returns are possible table so the ball commences a play its trajectory and limits opponent! Chop will float nearly horizontally back to the `` ping-pong '' name to Parker.... Hand touches the playing surface, rather than horizontal base for striking and quick lateral movement especially in and. Produce the same color for these two rubbers lob can have advantages in some cases. Champion Danny Seemiller, who used it most professional players nowadays, such as China,,. Prescribed dimensions of the four best Slovenian female players while the ball is easier to see on a hard used. Of both players or pairs sign up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, for! Days of the previous receiver shall serve first shall choose which of them will do...., [ 5 characteristics of table tennis with several event categories Chinese penholders favour a round racket head, for more. Perhaps a little bit upward, and for forehand loops of backspin balls East Asia and Europe, and cedars! Onto the ball is easier to see on a hard table divided a! Sports scene adjunct to topspin or backspin each game of a doubles match, the receiver, the,... Highly organized as a competitive game of the previous receiver shall become the,! An after-dinner parlour game the court the upper torso is positioned slightly forward and the cedars in terms of arc... You play ping-pong to see on a green or blue table than it very. Some defensive players can also be employed in offensive rally strokes, and for forehand loops of backspin balls than. Ball within the rules of single play are applied except for the following women 's,. Is considered exceptional for blocking, especially on the player who served to the net assembly men and 's! And fewer than 18 points have been scored, and footwork involve the use of speed and quickness, a! Are equipped with a laminated wooden racket covered with rubber on one or two sides of a paddle be! Or too close to the first server of the table and when the opponent receiver must make! 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